West Singhbhum District Profile
West Singhbhum district came into existence when the old Singhbhum District bifurcated in 1990. With 9 Community Development Blocks Eastern part became the East Singhbhum with Jamshedpur as its district Hqr. and with remaining 23 C.D.Blocks West Singhbhum with Chaibasa as its district Hqr. In 2001 West Singhbhum again divided in two parts. With 8 Blocks Saraikela-Kharsawan district came into existence. At present West Singhbhum remain with 15 blocks and two administrative Sub-divisions. The district is full of hills alternating with valleys, steep mountains, and deep forests on the mountain slopes. The district contains one of the best Sal forests and the SARANDA ( seven hundred hills) forest area is known world over. Scenically it is beautiful with water holes and also contains wild life like Elephants, Bison, rarely found tigers & panthers, bear, wild dogs, wild pigs. Sambhar, deer and spotted deer are also found but their numbers are decreasing in the forests adjoining habitation. There are two accounts relating to the origin of the name of the district. According to one the name Singhbhum, or the lands of "SINGHS" has been derived from the patronymic of the Singh Rajas of Porahat. The second account suggests that the name is a corrupt form of the SinghBonga the Principal deity of tribal population of the district.
West Singhbhum district forms the Southern part of the newly created Jharkhand State and is the largest district in the State. The district spread over 210 58' AND 230 36' north latitude and 850 0' & 860 54' East Longitude. The district is situated at a height of 244 Meter above the sea level and has an area of 5351.41 Sq. Kilometers. The district is bounded on the North by the district of Khunti , on the East by Saraikela-Kharsawan district, on the South by Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts of Orissa and on the West by the district of Simdega and Sundargarh (in Orissa).
CLIMATIC CONDITION ::
The year may be divided into three seasons; the winter from NOV-FEB, the summer from MAR-MAY, and the rainy season from JUN-OCT. The cold season is delightful while it is unpleasantly hot in the summer season with hot westerly winds prevailing. On account of the barrier of hills in the southeast, the atmosphere is generally dry. The Rainfall is the highest in July and August. The annual avg. rainfall in the district is about 1422 mm. Monsoon generally breaks in the second week of June. December-January are the coldest months while April-May are the hottest.
LAND PATTERN ::
The soil of the district has been classified into three groups Rocky Soil, Red Soil and Black Soil. Rocky soil is found mostly in the Southern, Western & North-Western portions of the district. It remains practically uncultivated. Red soil is spread throughout the district. It is sandy and loamy and has poor fertility. Black soil is mostly found in the lowlands of Kolhan. The texture of soil is loamy and clayey and is very fertile. Rice is the main crop of the district.