Lohardaga District Profile
Lohardaga district came into existence after Ranchi was split into three districts namely Ranchi, Lohardaga and Gumla way back in 1983. The district is named after the town of Lohardaga, the administrative headquarters of the district. Lohardaga was given the position of a sub division in 1972 and a district in 1983. In Jain texts there is reference to Lord Mahavir's visit to Lore-a-Yadaga, which means 'river of tears' in Mundari. 'Ain-e-akbari', the famous book on Akbar, also mentions a place called 'Kismate Lohardaga'. The word Lohardaga may be made of two hindi words, Lohar meaning 'ironmonger', and Daga meaning center', which makes the literal meaning of Lohardaga as 'center of iron mining'. The district is situated in the south western part of Jharkhand State between 23°30' and 23°40' north latitudes and 84°40' and 84°50' east longitudes. The district covers an area of 1491 km² in the tribal belt of Chotanagpur plateau.
District has a number of small hill blocks covered with forests. The general slope of the district is from west to east. The main rivers of the district are South Koel, Sankh, Nandni, Chaupat's and Fulijhar etc. These are mainly Rain fed Rivers and dried up in the summer months. Some springs are also seen in the hilly tract of the district. Geologically the area in comprised with Archean Granites and Gneisses. In the uplands considerable thickness of late-rite of Pleistocene age is found in the Granite and Gneisses tracts. Alluvium of recent to sub-recent age is found in the river valleys. The most important mineral of the district is bauxite. Other minerals which are found in the district are feldspar, fire clay and china clay and have less economic importance. The major part of the district is covered with Golden Alluvium, Red and Sandy and Red and Gravelly soils. Late-rite and Red and Yellow soils are also found elsewhere in the district. The district enjoys a healthy and pleasant climate throughout the year. The annual average temperature is 23° centigrade and the district receives an annual average rainfall of 1000-1200 mm. The rainfall increases from west to east.
:: D i v i s i o n s :
It has Seven blocks: Lohardaga, Kuru, Bhandra,Kairo, Kisko, Peshrar and Senha which contains 354 villages spread over in 66 Gram Panchayats.
:: D e m o g r a p h i c s :
According to the 2011 census Lohardaga district has a population of 461,738. This gives it a ranking of 549th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 310 inhabitants per square kilometer (800 /sq mi) Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 26.67 %. Lohardaga has a sex ratio of 985 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 68.29 %.
:: E d u c a t i o n a n d H e a l t h s e r v i c e s :
There are 445 Primary schools, 227 Primary with Upper Primary schools, 26 Primary with Upper Primary & Sec/Higher Secondary schools, 23 Upper Primary & Sec/Higher Secondary schools and two college in the district. In this district, there is a district hospital, one referral hospital, five primary health sub-centres, ten additional primary health centres, seventy three health sub-centres.
:: E c o n o m y :
The inhabitants of this district mainly depend on agriculture, forest produce and seasonal migration to different parts of the country. 80% of the population depends upon agriculture. The main crop of this area is paddy. In the small irrigated area wheat is grown to meet the annual food sufficiency. Also this district is linked with larger vegetable markets like Jamshedpur, Rourkela and Calcutta. There is a cold storage in the district. But profitable vegetable cultivation is being limited to road side non-tribals. Generally, villagers of the district keep plough animals. Also they keep goats and poultry birds as buffer. Although there is a dairy chilling plant in the district head quarter, dairy is practised by very few people mainly non-tribal.
The net sown area is only 55% of the total area of the district. Two blocks i.e. Kisko & Senha have large area under dense forest cover. The forest cover is around 32-35% of the total area of the district. The average land holding per household is 1.65 Ha. The per capita agriculture land is around 0.28 Ha. Net irrigated area is 13.4% of net sown area (0.8% by canals, 7% by wells, 2% by tanks & 3.6% by lift irrigation & others).