District administration is headed by Deputy Commissioner cum District Magistrate.The district consist of three subdivisions namely Garhwa,NagarUntari and Ranka. There are Ninteen development blocks in the district . The revenue circles which are also Six in numbers are contiguous with Development Block.Sub Divisional officer cum Subdivisional magistrate head the Sub divisional office. Block development officer and circle officers are in-charge of Development Blocks and Revenue Circles respectively. Block development officers are main implementing agencies of development programmes undertaken by DRDA and welfare dept. Circle officers are interested with revenue administration and relief works. Social Security schemes likes old age pension and Family benefit schemes are also interested to circle officers. Besides this, Child Development Project Officers are posted in every blocks. They are mainly interested with programmes of ICDS and Social Security.
The Deputy Commissioner is the Chief Revenue Officer as District Collector and is responsible for collection of Revenue and other Govt. dues recoverable as arrears of Land Revenue. He deals with the Natural Calamities like draught, unseasonal rains, hailstorms, floods and fire etc. Under the Registration Act the District Collector exercise the Powers of Registrar of the District and he controls and supervises the work of Registration of deeds. He also function as Marriage Officer under the Special Marriage Act, 1954. Further under the Cinematograph Act, the District Magistrate is the Licencing Authority in his jurisdiction. District Magistrate is thus responsible for the maintenance of Law & Order within the limit of his jurisdiction. He is conferred with very wide powers by the law, which if used prudently can be very effective in maintaining peace and tranquility. The police force is mainly an instrument provided by Law for the District Magistrate. He can impose restriction on the movement of unlawful Assembly under Section 144 Cr.P.C. and can also impose curfew keeping in view the situation. He is authorised to inspect the Offices/Courts of Sub Divisional Officers (Civil), Circle Offices, Treasuries, Sub Treasuries, Jails, Hospitals, Dispenseries, Schools, Blocks, Police Stationsetc.. In this way, he has effective control over the Administration.